six nations

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It has since been won three times by Ireland and twice by England and Wales. Several individual competitions take place under the umbrella of the tournament.

The oldest such regular competition is for the Calcutta Cup , contested annually between England and Scotland since Since , the Millennium Trophy has been awarded to the winner of the game between England and Ireland, and since the Centenary Quaich has been awarded to the winner of the game between Ireland and Scotland.

Since , France and Italy have contested the Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy ; it was created for the th anniversary of the birth of Giuseppe Garibaldi , the Italian hero who helped unify Italy and volunteered in the French Republican Army against Prussia.

The following trophies are contested within the main competition, mostly as long-standing fixtures between pairs of teams:.

This arrangement was made necessary by the closure and subsequent demolition of Ireland's traditional home at Lansdowne Road ; the Aviva was built on the former Lansdowne Road site.

During the construction of the Aviva, Croke Park was the largest of the Six Nations grounds, with a capacity of 82, In Italy moved their home games from the Stadio Flaminio, which only held 32,, to the Stadio Olimpico, also in Rome, with a capacity of 72, The French Rugby Federation FFR had planned to build a new stadium of its own, seating 82, in the southern suburbs of Paris, [14] because of frustrations with their tenancy of the Stade de France.

England's Jonny Wilkinson currently holds the records for individual points in one match 35 points against Italy in and one season with 89 scored in Ronan O'Gara of Ireland holds the career scoring record with points to Wilkinson's , having surpassed Wilkinson in Round 3 of the championship.

The record for tries in a match is held by Scotsman George Lindsay who scored five tries against Wales in Ireland's Brian O'Driscoll has the Championship record for tries with The record for appearances is held by O'Gara, with 63 Six Nations appearances from the start of the Six Nations era in to his retirement in He surpassed countryman Mike Gibson in the first round of the tournament against Wales.

Gibson played in 56 Five Nations matches Italy had not become part of the Championship yet between and The most points scored by a team in one match was 80 points, scored by England against Italy in England also scored the most ever points in a season in with , and most tries in a season with Wales hold the record for the longest time without conceding a try, at minutes in the tournament.

The BBC has long covered the tournament, broadcasting all matches apart from England home matches between and , which were shown live by Sky Sports with highlights on the BBC.

In , it was announced that the BBC's coverage of the tournament on TV, radio and online would be extended to Until , the Championship had no title sponsor.

A new title sponsor was sought for the tournament and beyond. As the RBS initials brand was being phased out, the tournament was named after their banking arm NatWest , becoming the Natwest 6 Nations.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of Six Nations Championship records. The first ever Home Nations International Championship was played in Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 5 February Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original PDF on 14 February Retrieved 29 September Archived from the original on 6 September Archived from the original on 15 June Their story, and governance truly based on the consent of the governed, contains a great deal of life-promoting intelligence for those of us not familiar with this area of American history.

The original United States representative democracy, fashioned by such central authors as Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, drew much inspiration from this confederacy of nations.

In our present day, we can benefit immensely, in our quest to establish anew a government truly dedicated to all life's liberty and happiness much as has been practiced by the Six Nations for over hundred years.

On June 11, while the question of independence was being debated, the visiting Iroquois chiefs were formally invited into the meeting hall of the Continental Congress.

There a speech was delivered, in which they were addressed as "Brothers" and told of the delegates' wish that the "friendship" between them would "continue as long as the sun shall shine" and the "waters run.

The Congress graciously consented, and so the president was renamed "Karanduawn, or the Great Tree. History is indebted to Charles Thomson, an adopted Delaware, whose knowledge of and respect for American Indians is reflected in the attention that he gave to this ceremony in the records of the Continental Congress.

The use of Indian women to provide an exemplar of feminist liberty continued into the nineteenth century. On May 16, , only six years before the first national election in which women had the vote, Puck printed a line drawing of a group of Indian women observing Susan B.

A verse under the print read: People Building a Long House: It contains extensive orthographic information on the new writing standard and also contains valuable phonemic charts.

Also of interest is the inclusion of some archaic vocabulary. It is, in a way, the modern world through Pleistocene eyes. Scholars and casual readers alike should question the significance, in the age of the Neutron bomb, Watergate, and nuclear energy plant proliferation, of a statement by a North American Indian people.

But there is probably some argument to be made for the appropriateness of such a statement at this time.

Most of the world's professed traditions are fairly recent in origin. Mohammedanism is perhaps years old, Christianity claims a year history, Judaism is perhaps years older than Christianity.

But the Native people can probably lay claim to a tradition which reaches back to at least the end of the Pleistocene, and which, in all probability, goes back much further than that.

There is some evidence that humanoid creatures have been present on the earth for at least two million years, and that humans who looked very much like us were in evidence in the Northern Hemisphere at least as long as the second interglacial period.

People who are familiar with the Hau de no sau nee beliefs will recognize that modern scientific evidence shows that the Native customs of today are not markedly different from those practiced by ancient peoples at least years ago.

Indeed, if an Iroquois traditionalist were to seek a career in the study of Pleistocene Man, he may find that he already knows more about the most ancient belief systems than do the modern scholars.

Be that as it may, the Hau de no see nee position is derived from a philosophy which sees The People with historical roots which extend back tens of thousands of years.

It is a geological kind of perspective, which sees modern man as an infant, occupying a very short space of time in an incredibly long spectrum. It is the perspective of the oldest elder looking into the affairs of a young child and seeing that he is committing incredibly destructive folly.

It is, in short, the statement of a people who are ageless but who trace their history as a people to the very beginning of time.

And they are speaking, in this instance, to a world which dates its existence from a little over years ago, and perhaps, in many cases, much more recently than that.

And it is, to our knowledge, the very first statement to be issued by a Native nation. What follows are not the research products of psychologists, historians, or anthropologists.

The papers which follow are the first authentic analyses of the modern world ever committed to writing by an official body of Native people.

Peacemaker presents his vision. By John Kahionhes Fadden. We believe that American history will not be complete until its indigenous aspects have been recognized and incorporated into the teaching of history.

We have assembled here a mosaic of fact and opinion which, taken together, indicates that the objective of the contemporary debate should be to define the role Native American precedents deserve in the broader ambit of American history.

Our thesis holds that the character of American democracy evolved importantly although, of course, not soley , from the examples provided by American Indian confederacies which ringed the land borders of the British colonies.

These examples provided a reality, as well as exercise for the imagination -- and it is imagination, above all, that foments revolutions. In this book, we attempt to provide a picture of how these native confederacies operated, and how important architects of American institutions, ideals and other character traits perceived them.

We operate as much as we are able from the historical record per se, relaying as much of original accounts as possible.

We attempt to trace both events and ideas: Native America had a substantial role in shaping all these ideas, as well as the events that turned colonies into a nation of states.

In a way that may be difficult to understand from the vantage point of the late twentieth century, Native Americans were present at the conception of the United States.

We owe part of our national soul to those who came before us on this soil. As is the case with many histories, this book proceeds along a time line.

Except for a few earlier premonitions, our historical study begins around with " Vox Americana ," which summarizes early English and French traders', missionaries' and settlers' accounts of native political organization and attitudes toward liberty.

The revolutionary era begins with " Mohawks, Axes, and Taxes ," an account of ways in which the image of the Indian was reflected in propaganda and popular art between and The timeline resumes once again in " An American Synthesis ," which organizes events between roughly and around the founding of the Sons of Saint Tammany, a patriotic organization succeeding the Sons of Liberty, which combined European and Native American ideas and motifs.

This has made us formidable; this has given us great Weight and Authority with our neighboring Nations. We are a powerful Confederacy; and by your observing the same methods, our wise forefathers have taken, you will acquire such Strength and power.

Therefore, whatever befalls you, never fall out with one another. Artwork by John Kahionhes Fadden. This book has two major purposes.

First, it seeks to weave a few new threads into the tapestry of American revolutionary history, to begin the telling of a larger story that has lain largely forgotten, scattered around dusty archives, for more than two centuries.

By arguing that American Indians principally the Iroquois played a major role in shaping the ideas of Franklin and thus, the American Revolution I do not mean to demean or denigrate European influences.

I mean not to subtract from the existing record, but to add an indigenous aspect, to show how America has been a creation of all its peoples. In the telling, this story also seeks to demolish what remains of stereotypical assumptions that American Indians were somehow too simpleminded to engage in effective social and political organization.

No one may doubt any longer that there has been more to history, much more, than the simple opposition of "savagery" and "civilization.

This was simply not the case. Franklin and his fellow founders knew differently. They learned from American Indians, by assimilating into their vision of the future, aspects of American Indian wisdom and beauty.

Our task is to relearn history as they experienced it, in all its richness and complexity, and thereby to arrive at a more complete understanding of what we were, what we are, and what we may become.

In , Frontenac destroyed the village of Schenectady and in Frontenac burned down three Mohawk villages and took prisoners. In , Frontenac decided to take the field against the Iroquois, although at this time he was seventy-six years of age.

Frontenac decided to target the Oneida and Onondaga this time, instead of the Mohawk whom were the favorite enemies of the French.

With support from the French, the Algonquian nations drove the Iroquois out of the territories north of Lake Erie and west of present-day Cleveland, Ohio , regions which they had conquered during the Beaver Wars.

As pursuit was impracticable, the French army commenced its return march on August Under Frontenac's leadership, the Canadian militia became increasingly adept at guerrilla warfare, taking the war into Iroquois territory and attacking a number of English settlements.

The Iroquois never threatened the French colony again. The Iroquois claimed to have conquered this territory 80 years earlier. France did not recognize the validity of the treaty, as it had settlements in the territory at that time and the English had virtually none.

Meanwhile, the Iroquois were negotiating peace with the French; together they signed the Great Peace of Montreal that same year.

After the peace treaty with the French, the Iroquois remained mostly neutral. During the course of the 17th century, the Iroquois had acquired a fearsome reputation among the Europeans, and it was the policy of the Six Nations to use this reputation to play off the French against the British in order to extract the maximum amount of material rewards.

Peter Schuyler , mayor of Albany, arranged for three Mohawk chiefs and a Mahican chief known incorrectly as the Four Mohawk Kings to travel to London in to meet with Queen Anne in an effort to seal an alliance with the British.

Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.

In the first quarter of the 18th century, the Iroquoian-speaking Tuscarora fled north from the pressure of British colonization of North Carolina and intertribal warfare; they had been subject to having captives sold into Indian slavery.

They petitioned to become the sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederacy. This was a non-voting position, but they gained the protection of the Haudenosaunee.

The Iroquois program toward the defeated tribes favored assimilation within the 'Covenant Chain' and Great Law of Peace, over wholesale slaughter.

Both the Lenni Lenape, and the Shawnee were briefly tributary to the Six Nations, while subjected Iroquoian populations emerged in the next period as the Mingo , speaking a dialect like that of the Seneca, in the Ohio region.

In and , Lt. But, as European settlers began to move beyond the Blue Ridge and into the Shenandoah Valley in the s, the Iroquois objected. Virginia officials told them that the demarcation was to prevent the Iroquois from trespassing east of the Blue Ridge, but it did not prevent English from expanding west.

Tensions increased over the next decades, and the Iroquois were on the verge of going to war with the Virginia Colony.

In , Governor Gooch paid them the sum of pounds sterling for any settled land in the Valley that was claimed by the Iroquois. The following year at the Treaty of Lancaster , the Iroquois sold Virginia all their remaining claims in the Shenandoah Valley for pounds in gold.

The Iroquois hoped that aiding the British would also bring favors after the war. Few Iroquois warriors joined the campaign.

By contrast, the Canadian Iroquois supported the French. In , refugees from is now southern-western Germany known as the Palatines appealed to the Iroquois clan mothers for permission to settle on their land.

On 9 July , a force of British Army regulars and the Virginia militia under General Edward Braddock advancing into the Ohio river valley was almost completely destroyed by the French and their Indian allies at the Battle of the Monongahela.

Johnson attempted to ambush a force of 1, French troops and Canadian Iroquios under the command of Baron Dieskau, who beat off the attack and killed the old Mohawk war chief, Peter Hendricks.

In February , the French learned from a spy, Oratory, an Oneida chief, that a British were stockpiling supplies at the Oneida Carrying Place , a crucial portage between Albany and Oswego to support an offensive in the spring into what is now Ontario.

On 13 March , an Oswegatchie Indian traveler informed the expedition that the British had built two forts at the Oneida Carrying Place, which caused the majority of the Canadian Iroquois to want to turn back, as they argued the risks of assaulting a fort would mean too many casualties, and many did in fact abandon the expedition.

They killed everyone they encountered". The crucial difference between the European and First Nations way of war was that Europe had millions of people, which meant that British and French generals were willing to see thousands of their own men die in battle in order to secure victory as their losses could always be made good; by contrast, the Iroquois had a considerably smaller population, and could not afford heavy losses, which could cripple a community.

The Iroquois custom of "Mourning wars" to take captives who would become Iroquois reflected the continual need for more people in the Iroquois communities.

Iroquois warriors were brave, but would only fight to the death if necessary, usually to protect their women and children; otherwise, the crucial concern for Iroquois chiefs was always to save manpower.

Peter MacLeod wrote that the Iroquois way of war was based on their hunting philosophy, where a successful hunter would bring down an animal efficiently without taking any losses to his hunting party, and in the same way, a successful war leader would inflict losses on the enemy without taking any losses in return.

The Iroquois only entered the war on the British side again in late after the British took Louisbourg and Fort Frontenac.

Lawrence valley as he advanced towards Montreal, which he took in September After the war, to protect their alliance, the British government issued the Royal Proclamation of , forbidding Anglo-European white settlements beyond the Appalachian Mountains.

Colonists largely ignored the order, and the British had insufficient soldiers to enforce it. Faced with confrontations, the Iroquois agreed to adjust the line again in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution , the Iroquois were creative and strategic thinkers.

They chose to sell to the British Crown all their remaining claim to the lands between the Ohio and Tennessee rivers, which they did not occupy, hoping by doing so to draw off English pressure on their territories in the Province of New York.

During the American Revolution , the Iroquois first tried to stay neutral. The Reverend Samuel Kirkland, a Congregational minister working as a missionary, pressured the Oneida and the Tuscarora for a pro-American neutrality while Guy Johnson and his cousin John Johnson pressured the Mohawk, the Cayuga and the Seneca to fight for the British.

Joseph Louis Cook offered his services to the United States and received a Congressional commission as a lieutenant colonel—the highest rank held by any Native American during the war.

The Mohawk war chief Joseph Brant , other war chiefs, and British allies conducted numerous operations against frontier settlements in the Mohawk Valley, including the Cherry Valley massacre , destroying many villages and crops, and killing and capturing inhabitants.

The destructive raids by Brant and other Loyalists led to appeals to Congress for help. Daniel Brodhead and General John Sullivan , against the Iroquois nations to "not merely overrun, but destroy", the British-Indian alliance.

They burned many Iroquois villages and stores throughout western New York; refugees moved north to Canada.

By the end of the war, few houses and barns in the valley had survived the warfare. In the aftermath of the Sullivan expedition, Brant visited Quebec City to ask General Sir Frederick Haildmand for assurances that the Mohawk and the other Loyalist Iroquois would receive a new homeland in Canada as compensation for their loyalty to the Crown if the British should lose.

The American Revolution was a war that caused a great divide amongst the colonists between Patriots and Loyalists; it caused a divide between the colonies and Great Britain, and it also caused a rift that would break the Iroquois Confederacy.

At the onset of the Revolution, the Iroquois Confederacy's Six Nations attempted to take a stance of neutrality. However, almost inevitably, the Iroquois nations eventually had to take sides in the conflict.

It is easy to see how the American Revolution would have caused conflict and confusion among the Six Nations. For years they had been used to thinking about the English and their colonists as one and the same people.

In the American Revolution, the Iroquois Confederacy now had to deal with relationships between two governments. The Iroquois Confederation's population had changed significantly since the arrival of Europeans.

Disease had reduced their population to a fraction of what it had been in the past. Dealing with two governments made it hard to maintain a neutral stance, because the governments could get jealous easily if the Confederacy was interacting or trading more with one side over the other, or even if there was simply a perception of favoritism.

Because of this challenging situation, the Six Nations had to choose sides. The Oneida and Tuscarora decided to support the American colonists, while the rest of the Iroquois League the Cayuga, Mohawk, Onondaga, and Seneca sided with the British and their Loyalists among the colonists.

There were many reasons that the Six Nations could not remain neutral and uninvolved in the Revolutionary War.

One of these is simple proximity; the Iroquois Confederacy was too close to the action of the war to not be involved. The Six Nations were very discontented with the encroachment of the English and their colonists upon their land.

They were particularly concerned with the border established in the Proclamation of and the Treaty of Fort Stanwix in During the American Revolution, the authority of the British government over the frontier was highly contested.

The colonists tried to take advantage of this as much as possible by seeking their own profit and claiming new land. In , the Six Nations were still neutral when "a Mohawk person was killed by a Continental soldier".

They were concerned about being killed, and about their lands being taken from them. They could not show weakness and simply let the colonists and British do whatever they wanted.

Many of the English and colonists did not respect the treaties made in the past. In addition to being in close proximity to the war, the new lifestyle and economics of the Iroquois Confederacy since the arrival of the Europeans in North America made it nearly impossible for the Iroquois to isolate themselves from the conflict.

By this time, the Iroquois had become dependent upon the trade of goods from the English and colonists, and had adopted many European customs, tools, and weapons.

For example, they were increasingly dependent on firearms for hunting. As Barbara Graymont stated, "Their task was an impossible one to maintain neutrality.

Their economies and lives had become so dependent on each other for trading goods and benefits it was impossible to ignore the conflict.

Meanwhile they had to try and balance their interactions with both groups. They did not want to seem as they were favoring one group over the other, because of sparking jealousy and suspicion from either side".

Furthermore, the English had made many agreements with the Six Nations over the years, yet most of the Iroquois' day-to-day interaction had been with the colonists.

This made it a confusing situation for the Iroquois because they could not tell who the true heirs of the agreement were, and couldn't know if agreements with England would continue to be honored by the colonists if they were to win independence.

Supporting either side in the Revolutionary War was a complicated decision. Each nation individually weighed their options to come up with a final stance that ultimately broke neutrality and ended the collective agreement of the Confederation.

The British were clearly the most organized, and seemingly most powerful. In many cases, the British presented the situation to the Iroquois as the colonists just being "naughty children".

On the other, the Iroquois considered that "the British government was three thousand miles away. This placed them at a disadvantage in attempting to enforce both the Proclamation of and the Treaty at Fort Stanwix against land hungry frontiersmen.

The Iroquois also had concerns about the colonists. The British asked for Iroquois support in the war.

The Iroquois Confederacy was particularly concerned over the possibility of the colonists winning the war, for if a revolutionary victory were to occur, the Iroquois very much saw it as the precursor to their lands being taken away by the victorious colonists, who would no longer have the British Crown to restrain them.

On a contrasting note, it was the colonists who had formed the most direct relationships with the Iroquois due to their proximity and trade ties.

For the most part, the colonists and Iroquois had lived in relative peace since the English arrival on the continent a century and a half before.

The Iroquois had to determine whether their relationships with the colonists were reliable, or whether the English would prove to better serve their interests.

They also had to determine whether there were really any differences between how the English and the colonists would treat them.

The war ensued, and the Iroquois broke their confederation. Hundreds of years of precedent and collective government was trumped by the immensity of the American Revolutionary War.

At the conclusion of the war the fear that the colonists would not respect the Iroquois' pleas came true, especially after the majority of the Six Nations decided to side with the British and were no longer considered trustworthy by the newly independent Americans.

In the Treaty of Paris was signed. While the treaty included peace agreements between all of the European nations involved in the war as well as the newborn United States, it made no provisions for the Iroquois, who were left to be treated with by the new United States government as it saw fit.

After the Revolutionary War, the ancient central fireplace of the League was re-established at Buffalo Creek. The United States and the Iroquois signed the treaty of Fort Stanwix in under which the Iroquois ceded much of their historical homeland to the Americans, which was followed by another treaty in at Canandaigua which they ceded even more land to the Americans.

Traditionally, for the Iroquois farming was woman's work and hunting was men's work; by the early 19th century, American policies to have the men farm the land and cease hunting were having effect.

By , Methodist and Episcopalian missionaries established missions to assist the Oneida and Onondaga in western New York. However, white settlers continued to move into the area.

By , a group of Oneida led by Eleazar Williams , son of a Mohawk woman, went to Wisconsin to buy land from the Menominee and Ho-Chunk and thus move their people further westward.

To partially replace the lands they had lost in the Mohawk Valley and elsewhere because of their fateful alliance with the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River , at Six Nations of the Grand River First Nation.

Brant's crossing of the river gave the original name to the area: By , European settlers began to settle nearby and named the village Brantford.

The original Mohawk settlement was on the south edge of the present-day Canadian city at a location still favorable for launching and landing canoes.

During the 18th century, the Catholic Canadian Iroquois living outside of Montreal reestablished ties with the League Iroquois. Lawrence, a number of Iroquois men from Kahnawke were hired to help built and the Iroquois workers proved so skilled as steelwork erectors that since that time, a number of bridges and skycrapers in Canada and the United States have been built by the Iroquois steelmen.

The Six Nations council at Brantford tended to see themselves as a sovereign nation that was allied to the Crown through the Covenant Chain going back to the 17th century and thus allied to King George V personally instead of being under the authority of Canada.

The complex political environment which emerged in Canada with the Haudenosaunee grew out of the Anglo-American era of European colonization.

At the end of the War of , Britain shifted Indian affairs from the military to civilian control. With the creation of the Dominion of Canada in , civil authority, and thus Indian affairs, passed to Canadian officials with Britain retaining control of military and security matters.

At the turn of the century, the Canadian government began passing a series of Acts which were strenuously objected to by the Iroquois Confederacy.

Under the Soldiers Resettlement Act, legislation was introduced to redistribute native land. Finally in , an Act was proposed to force citizenship on "Indians" with or without their consent, which would then automatically remove their share of any tribal lands from tribal trust and make the land and the person subject to the laws of Canada.

The Haudenosaunee hired a lawyer to defend their rights in the Supreme Court of Canada. The Supreme Court refused to take the case, declaring that the members of the Six Nations were British citizens.

In effect, as Canada was at the time a division of the British government, it was not an international state, as defined by international law.

In contrast, the Iroquois Confederacy had been making treaties and functioning as a state since and all of their treaties had been negotiated with Britain, not Canada.

In response, the Iroquois began issuing their own passports and sent Levi General , [] the Cayuga Chief "Deskaheh," [] to England with their attorney.

Winston Churchill dismissed their complaint claiming that it was within the realm of Canadian jurisdiction and referred them back to Canadian officials.

After the meeting, the Native delegation brought the offer to the tribal council, as was customary under Haudenosaunee law. The council agreed to accept the offer, but before they could respond, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police conducted a liquor raid on the Iroquois' Grand River territory.

Deskaheh and the tribal attorney proceeded to Geneva and attempted to gather support. Only 26 ballots were cast.

The long-term effect of the Order was that the Canadian government had wrested control over the Haudenosaunee trust funds from the Iroquois Confederation and decades of litigation would follow.

In , hoping again to clarify that judicial responsibilities of treaties signed with Britain were not transferred to Canada, several Alberta Indian chiefs filed a petition with the British High Court of Justice.

They lost the case but gained an invitation from the Canadian government to participate in the constitutional discussions which dealt with protection of treaty rights.

In , a long-running dispute over ownership of land at Oka, Quebec caused a violent stand-off. The Mohawk reservation at Oka had become dominated by a group called the Mohawk Warrior Society that emerged in smuggling across the U.

S-Canada border and were well armed with assault rifles. In a series of laws, attempting to mainstream tribal people into the greater society, the government strove to end the U.

In general the laws were expected to create taxpaying citizens, subject to state and federal taxes as well as laws, from which Native people had previously been exempt.

Its purpose was to settle for all time any outstanding grievances or claims the tribes might have against the U. Claims had to be filed within a five-year period, and most of the complaints that were submitted [] were filed at the approach of the 5-year deadline in August, It covered all reservations lands within the state and prohibited the deprivation of hunting and fishing rights which may have been guaranteed to "any Indian tribe, band, or community, or members thereof.

It allowed the tribes to preserve customs, prohibited taxation on reservations, [] and reaffirmed hunting and fishing rights. It also prohibited the state from enforcing judgments regarding any land disputes or applying any State Laws to tribal lands or claims prior to the effective date of the law 13 September The State of New York disavowed any intention to break up or deprive tribes of their reservations and asserted that they did not have the ability to do so.

On 1 August , United States Congress issued a formal statement, House Concurrent Resolution , which was the formal policy presentation announcing the official federal policy of Indian termination.

The resolution called for the "immediate termination of the Flathead , Klamath , Menominee , Potawatomi , and Turtle Mountain Chippewa , as well as all tribes in the states of California , New York , Florida , and Texas.

The resolution also called for the Interior Department to quickly identify other tribes who would be ready for termination in the near future.

Beginning in , a Federal task force began meeting with the tribes of the Six Nations. Despite tribal objections, legislation was introduced into Congress for termination.

On 31 August , [] H. The bill authorized payment for resettling and rehabilitation of the Seneca Indians who were being dislocated by the construction of the Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River.

Though only Seneca families about people were being dislocated, the legislation benefited the entire Seneca Nation, because the taking of the Indian land for the dam abridged a treaty agreement.

In addition, the bill provided that within three years, a plan from the Interior Secretary should be submitted to Congress withdrawing all federal supervision over the Seneca Nation, though technically civil and criminal jurisdiction had lain with the State of New York since Accordingly, on 5 September a memo from the Department of the Interior announced proposed legislation was being submitted to end federal ties with the Seneca.

In a twist of fate, one former New York Tribe did lose its federal recognition. Though the law did not specifically state the Brothertown Indians were terminated, it authorized all payments to be made directly to each enrollee with special provisions for minors to be handled by the Secretary.

The payments were not subject to state or federal taxes. For the Haudenosaunee, grief for a loved one who died was a powerful emotion that if not attended would cause all sorts of problems for the grieving who if left without consolation would go mad.

One of the central features of traditional Iroquois life was the "mourning wars" when Haudenosaunee warriors would raid neighboring peoples in search of captives to replace those Haudenosaunee who had died.

Additionally war served as a way for young men to demonstrate their valor and courage, which was not a prerequisite for becoming a chief, but also essential if one wanted to get married and hence have sex.

The clan mothers would demand a "mourning war" to provide consolation and renewed spiritual strength for a family that lost a member to death by accusing the warriors of cowardice; either the warriors would go on a "mourning war" or would be marked as cowards forever, which make them unmarriageable.

Those slated for execution had to wear red and black facial paint and were "adopted" by a family who addressed the prisoner as "uncle", "aunt", "nephew" or "niece" depending on their age and sex, and would bring them food and water.

For Iroquois, the purpose of war was to take prisoners first and foremost, with the Onondaga chief Teganissorens telling the governor of New York, Sir Robert Hunter , in For these reasons, the Haudenosaunee engaged in tactics that the French, the British and later on the Americans all considered to be cowardly.

When European diseases that the Indians had no immunity to like smallpox devastated the Five Nations in the 17th century, causing thousands of deaths, the League began a period of "mourning wars" without precedent, which led to the virtual destruction of the Huron, Petun and Neutral peoples.

Despite taking thousands of captives, the Five Nations populations continued to fall, as diseases continued to take their toll while Jesuits, whom the Haudenosaunee were forced to accept after making peace with the French in , encouraged Catholic converts to move to the St.

The Iroquois League traditions allowed for the dead to be symbolically replaced through captives taken in "mourning wars", the blood feuds and vendettas that were an essential aspect of Iroquois culture.

Captives were generally adopted directly by the grieving family to replace the member s who had been lost. This process not only allowed the Iroquois to maintain their own numbers, but also to disperse and assimilate their enemies.

The adoption of conquered peoples, especially during the period of the Beaver Wars , meant that the Iroquois League was composed largely of naturalized members of other tribes.

Cadwallader Colden wrote, "It has been a constant maxim with the Five Nations, to save children and young men of the people they conquer, to adopt them into their own Nation, and to educate them as their own children, without distinction; These young people soon forget their own country and nation and by this policy the Five Nations make up the losses which their nation suffers by the people they lose in war.

By , two-thirds of the Oneida village were assimilated Algonquians and Hurons. At Onondaga there were Native Americans of seven different nations and among the Seneca eleven.

This tradition of adoption and assimilation was common to native people of the northeast but was quite different from European settlers' notions of combat.

At the time of first European contact the Iroquois lived in a small number of large villages scattered throughout their territory.

Each nation had between one and four villages at any one time, and villages were moved approximately every five to twenty years as soil and firewood were depleted.

Villages were usually built on level or raised ground, surrounded by log palisades and sometimes ditches. Within the villages the inhabitants lived in longhouses.

Longhouses varied in size from 15 to feet long and 15 to 25 feet in breadth. Their houses are mostly of one and the same shape, without any special embellishment or remarkable design.

When building a house, large or small,—for sometimes they build them as long as some hundred feet, though never more than twenty feet wide—they stick long, thin, peeled hickory poles in the ground, as wide apart and as long as the house is to be.

The poles are then bent over and fastened one to another, so that it looks like a wagon or arbor as are put in gardens.

Next, strips like split laths are laid across these poles from one end to the other. This is then well covered all over with very tough bark. From one end of the house to the other along the center they kindle fires, and the area left open, which is also in the middle, serves as a chimney to release the smoke.

Often there are sixteen or eighteen families in a house This means that often a hundred or a hundred and fifty or more lodge in one house.

Usually, between 2 and 20 families lived in a single longhouse with sleeping platforms being 2 feet above the ground and food left to dry on the rafters.

In addition to the castles the Iroquois also had smaller settlements which might be occupied seasonally by smaller groups, for example for fishing or hunting.

Total population for the five nations has been estimated at 20, before After the population dropped to around 6,, chiefly due to the epidemic of smallpox introduced by contact with European settlers.

The typical clan consisted of about 50 to people. Cayuga Moiety A clans: Bear, Wolf Moeity B clans: Bear, Turtle Mohawk Moeity A clans: Wolf, Bear Moeity B clan: By the late s The Iroquois were building smaller log cabins resembling those of the colonists, but retaining some native features, such as bark roofs with smoke holes and a central fireplace.

The Iroquois are a mix of horticulturalists , farmers, fishers, gatherers and hunters, though their main diet traditionally has come from farming.

The cornstalks grow, the bean plants climb the stalks, and the squash grow beneath, inhibiting weeds and keeping the soil moist under the shade of their broad leaves.

In this combination, the soil remained fertile for several decades. The food was stored during the winter, and it lasted for two to three years.

When the soil in one area eventually lost its fertility, the Haudenosaunee moved their village. For the Iroquois, farming was traditionally women's work and the entire process of planting, maintaining, harvesting and cooking the "Three Sisters" were done by women.

Gathering is the traditional job of the women and children. Wild roots, greens, berries and nuts were gathered in the summer.

During spring, sap is tapped from the maple trees and boiled into maple syrup , and herbs are gathered for medicine.

After the coming of Europeans, the Iroquois started to grow apples, pears, cherries, and peaches. The Iroquois hunted mostly deer but also other game such as wild turkey and migratory birds.

Muskrat and beaver were hunted during the winter. Archaeologists have the bones of bison, elk, deer, bear, raccoon, and porcupines at Iroquois villages.

Lawrence and Great Lakes areas. The Iroquois used nets made from vegetable fiber with weights of pebbles for fishing.

Lawrence became too polluted by industry. In the spring the Iroquois netted, and in the winter fishing holes were made in the ice. In Johannes Megapolensis described Mohawk traditional wear.

In summer they go naked, having only their private parts covered with a patch. The children and young folks to ten, twelve and fourteen years of age go stark naked.

In winter, they hang about them simply an undressed deer or bear or panther skin; or they take some beaver and otter skins, wild cat, racoon, martin, otter, mink, squirrel or such like skins On their feet the Iroquois wore moccasins , "true to nature in its adjustment to the foot, beautiful in its materials and finish, and durable as an article of apparel.

The moccason is made of one piece of deer-skin. It is seamed up at the heel, and also in front, above the foot, leaving the bottom of the moccasin without a seam.

In front the deer-skin is gathered, in place of being crimped; over this part porcupine quills or beads are worked, in various patterns.

The plain moccasin rises several inches above the ankle In Dutch official Adriaen van der Donck wrote:. Around their waist they all [i. The men pull a length of duffel cloth—if they have it—under this belt, front and rear, and pass it between the legs.

It is like a petticoat, but under it, next to the body, they wear a deerskin which also goes around the waist and ends in cleverly cut pointed edging and fringes.

The wealthier women and those who have a liking for it wear such skirts wholly embroidered with wampum As for covering the upper part of the body both men and women use a sheet of duffel cloth of full width, i.

It is usually worn over the right shoulder and tied in a knot around the waist and from there hangs down to the feet. During the 17th century, Iroquois clothing changed rapidly as a result of the introduction of scissors and needles obtained from the Europeans, and the British scholar Michael Johnson has cautioned that European accounts of Iroquois clothing from the latter 17th century may not have entirely reflected traditional pre-contact Iroquois clothing.

By the latter 18th century, women were wearing muslin or calico long, loose-fitting overdresses. By the s most Iroquois were wearing the same clothing as their non-Iroquois neighbors.

Today most nations only wear their traditional clothing to ceremonies or special events. Men wore a cap with a single long feather rotating in a socket called a gustoweh.

Later, feathers in the gustoweh denote the wearer's tribe by their number and positioning.



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